The Poverty and Vulnerability Assessment Tool (PVAT) dataset was developed to capture the micro-level perspective of people's experiences with poverty and vulnerability and to monitor poverty and vulnerability trends on the ground. The assessment was based on a standardized questionnaire that has been developed to assess, describe, and analyse the situation of poor and vulnerable people in the Nepal. This will lead to an enhanced understanding of multiple aspects of livelihood assets, structures, and the processes that underpin such assets. It will also help determine levels of access, terms of exchange, and returns from livelihood assets as well as livelihood strategies and their outcomes for the poor. PVAT was conducted twice in 2011 and 2012. Sankhuwashava,Terthum, Saptari, Gorkha, Jajarkot, Kailali, Bajhang and Sindhupalchok in 2011. Taplejung, Bhojpur, Solukhumbu, Sindhuli, Rukum, Dailekh, Mugu and Darchula in 2012.